This energy is called the Work Function. Richard, you say, "I welcome any critical comments... they should be based on solid science and not just name calling." 4) You say, "it is obvious that (I) have no interest in learning about microbiology, micropaleontology or meteorites and the evidence ." Sufficient reason to accuse Torbjörn of all sorts of mischeif, and move the conversation from science to OKThen's ego. This savings in energy is so much as to be enabling. Other scientists have proven that the parent bodies of these meteorites had large amounts of liquid water for long periods of time. First, I was invited to write this article and I paid nothing ($0.00) to the Journal for it to be published. That is not a "scientific view" it is an opinion. You must do the best you can — if you know anything at all wrong, or possibly wrong — to explain it. These regions of the Moon that live permanently in shadow are worse than the Thunderdome: two men enter, no man leaves. My job descriptions at NASA were as an Astrophysicist and Astrobiologist --- never as an Engineer. "Consistent with previous work, the turbulent model has the ice line crossing an AU just about a million years after disk formation – barely any time to form planets! If you had read the Journal of Cosmology paper, then you would know that the EDS spectral data published reveals very low levels of nitrogen in these filaments proving that they could not have invaded the meteorites after they landed on Earth. After you have read it, then I welcome any critical comments you may wish to make --- but they should be based on solid science and not just name calling and other such nonsense. There is no LIQUID WATER on Mercury: the lack of an atmosphere, the solar wind, and the vast surface temperature differences prevent the formation of oceans as on Earth. But THANKS FOR THIS HEADS UP that you are selling COMPLETE NONSENSE. "You don't drown by falling in the water; you drown by staying there." When two materials contact, at the point of contact the electrons must have the same energy. Image credit: NASA / Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory / Carnegie Institution of Washington / National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, Arecibo Observatory. The paper is freely available online. EPA has found mercury in water to potentially cause kidney damage from … A mosaic of MESSENGER images of Mercury's north polar region is pictured in this handout image from NASA. So yes, I do consider the opinion NASA's Chief Scientists, magazines Nature, Science, Discover and others; in forming my opinion. 2) In my opinion, the Journal of Cosmology is not a credible publication. Scientists suggested decades ago that there might be water ice at Mercury’s poles, but the new findings provide"compelling support" for … http://blogs.nature.com/news/2012/07/study-says-asteroids-delivered-wat…. © 2006-2020 Science 2.0. Instruments aboard NASA's MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft studying the planet Mercury have provided compelling support for the long-held hypothesis the planet harbors abundant water ice and other … -Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Rime of the Ancient Mariner Again, this is not a hypothesis, but observations that are known to a large number of exobiologists and astrobiologists. ARE YOU READY TO LEARN BY BEING PROVEN WRONG?? (see my above). Image credit: Olaf Frohn, from earlier in 2012. Some get deflected into the inner regions of the Solar System. It is a characteristic property of materials. biology. Humans and fish-eating wildlife, such as loons and otters, are then exposed to elevated concentrations of mercury from consuming the fish. You say "scientists think the idea of Cyanobacteria on a small airless world sounds like a joke." If mercury is put in the drinking water, the effect of it will be dangerous to an individual’s health. And on second thought, Ethan's explanation is excellent even though it leaves some unanswered questions. And I do not know any scientists who would state such an opinion, but if they did it would be based on ignorance. There's whole swathes of stuff we can't account for." Structure and Surface. We are part of Science 2.0, a science education nonprofit operating under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. How many spacecraft have been to Mercury? How, exactly, did Newton fail…. Because its axial tilt is virtually negligible -- at 0.1° -- it's the ellipticity of Mercury's orbit that determines the seasons on that world. Many of these filaments exhibit features similar to those known in filamentous trichomic prokaryotes that live in aquatic environments, ice and permafrost on Earth. Water as from such a source in terrestrials comes from hydrogen and oxygen trapped in the mantle material, which are later released by volcanism and reconstituted as water sooner or later. And regardless of your credentials and personal belief in your ideas, THIS BLOG IS NOT THE PLACE TO ARGUE YOUR HIGHLY DISPUTED SPECULATIVE IDEA. As we anticipated, Mercury bears a strong resemblance to our Moon: it's a rocky, heavily cratered, atmosphere-less object in the inner Solar System. Papers published in Science Express provide support for the long-held hypothesis that Mercury's permanently shadowed polar craters contain water ice. post-arrival biological contaminants.) I have studied a large number of carbonaceous meteorites since 1997. The exospheric species originate either from the Solar wind or from the planetary crust. Despite temperatures on its surface rising up to 450°C, there seems to be water ice on Mercury. Solar light pushes the atmospheric gases away from the Sun, creating a … Most people would have realised that 40% figure was just an error (probably referred to sattelites) but not OKThen. Not all asteroids contain water. [Related: First Photos of Water Ice on Mercury … I wrote the following paragraph after RH's first comment, before reading the rest of the arguement between Richard & OKThen: Richard Hoover: Is your hypothesis widely shared among exobiologists? I receive no money from the sale of the book, so am not in any way trying to advance its sales. Around any star, any rocky planet with no atmosphere and a sufficiently small axial tilt should have permanently shadowed craters at its poles, which will contain ices and other frozen materials common to that Solar System. It has also been discovered that the nuclei of all comets studied have an albedo that is very similar to that of the carbonaceous meteorites. To Wow, please note that water is the most common molecule in the Universe composed of two or more elements. This orthographic projection view provides a look at Mercury's north polar region. Nor any drop to drink." I do not need to believe an angel or ask a scientist. Privacy statement. Because Mercury has a slow spin and short year, it takes a long time for the sun to rise and set there. In this arena, the opinion of a particle physicist is just as irrelevant as would be that of a general microbiologist on a question of string theory or quantum chromodynamics unless they have also actually studied those fields. After building us up and letting us down easy about that alleged discovery "for the history books" from Curiosity, NASA has announced the next best thing in space right now: we found water ice on Mercury. OKThen, great questions. Just a couple of these technologies include the following: Scrubber technology can be used to get 90 percent of the mercury out of emissions. I would therefore invoke Carl Sagan's famous advice that extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. I've learned from this conversation, Thank you. ", "Not all asteroids contain water. Trying to win your case amongst amateurs, here on this blog, is not good science. Image credit: Boston University / Baumgardner et al., 2000 (Astronomical Journal). By contrast, the model that includes a turbulence-free dead zone has an inner icy region and a central ice-free region. -Douglas Adams Finding this water and these organics in the permanently shadowed craters of Mercury isn't a surprise; it's exactly what this picture predicts. … Similar filaments have been found by scientists in Russia, Canada, and the United Kingdom conducting independent electron microscope studies of CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous meteorites. I issue a disclaimer because I don't want to mislead, nor do I want to win by popular argument; I want to learn and understand the science; therefore I am ready to be proven wrong. When I started writing about science online in January of 2008, I put the word out that I would accept questions from my readers. If ice is to be recovered in these cold places, my separator will be used to do it. Is there any water on Mercury? There are two kinds of mercury: Inorganic mercury and organic mercury. There’s not a lot of mercury nor methylmercury in the ocean water. Many, such as David McKay, Academician Alexei Rozanov, Academician Eric Galimov, Professor Roland Paepe, Dr. Roesmarie Rippka, Dr. Anne St. Amand, and many others have provided helpful discussions and are generally supportive of these findings and interpretations. wikipedia No water on the Jupiter gas giant. But, to finish this story, it is unlikely that asteroids and comets have supplied inner terrestrials with a dominant part of water. You have asked some good and thoughtful questions. Further work will be necessary to validate this model. Cyanobacteriaia live in water, in glacial ice and in thin films of water between sand grains in rocks in the polar regions (cryptoendoliths). Goodbye, Scienceblogs,…, "Delay is the deadliest form of denial." The low nitrogen levels in these filaments prove that they are not modern blue-green algae that invaded the stones after they landed on Earth. Why did these organisms adapt to be able to survive in conditions that are never encountered together in natural environments on this planet? Because Mercury is so close to the Sun, it's very difficult to view it under good conditions with a telescope; the risk of ruining your optics by exposing them to direct sunlight is tremendous! David is also wrong in that there have been many publications providing evidence for the remains of Cyanobacteria and other microfossils in "prestigious peer-reviewed" publications such as Science and Nature over the past half century. This could explain the presence of the fossilized remains of recognizable cyanobacterial filaments that have been found embedded in the rock matrix of these meteorites. It was also made available to a large number of other Scientists for Commentary, and their comments were published along with the paper. Algae. Despite the discovery of…, I thought I should consult you first before I went ahead with my plan to destroy the Moon. Cool Cosmos is an IPAC website. Mercury has neither air nor water. While I have designed and built advanced X-ray telescopes and microscopes, I have also used these instruments for studies of the Sun and Supernova remnants. Second, you obviously never read any of my papers or you would know that I have studied many carbonaceous meteorites --- but never examined Tonk or Revelstoke. Be proud of your best ideas; but be honest about their merit or NOT. And now a study shows how that Vulcan scorch probably helps the planet closest to the sun make some of that ice. The role of a scientist is to make careful observations the natural world and honestly present the evidence and provide his interpretation of what the data means. "CI1 fossils refer to alleged morphological evidence of microfossils found in five CI1 carbonaceous chondrite meteorite fall: Alais, Orgueil, Ivuna, Tonk and Revelstoke. Conversions Table; 1 Inches Of Water to Inches Of Mercury = 0.0736: 70 Inches Of Water to Inches Of Mercury = 5.1488: 2 Inches Of Water to Inches Of Mercury = 0.1471: 80 Inches Of Water to Inches Of Mercury = 5.8843: 3 Inches Of Water to Inches Of Mercury = 0.2207 I rather trust David Morrison, senior scientist at the NASA Astrobiology Institute at Ames Research Center who said, "Many scientists have examined thousands of meteorites in detail over the past 50 years without finding any evidence of fossil life. 6) You need to republish online in arXiv which has a high enough peer review reputation and yet does publish some controversial papers. This way you get to find out if you're drawing appropriate conclusions from your existing background knowledge, and if not, the corrective feedback is useful. I do not know what the parent bodies of these meteorites were, although I think comets make a very logical possibility for a number of reasons. The Earth is only 0.023% water by mass, while the outer solar system giants are as much as 40% water." Mercury contamination is global and affects many waters that have no obvious mercury source. And I am unqualified to evaluate your work. The reason the Moon has no atmosphere is because direct sunlight on the surface of the Moon is energetic enough to impart any atom or molecule it strikes with enough velocity to escape the Moon's gravity. But inside a permanently shadowed crater, the temperature is somewhere around a cool 50 Kelvin, and once you fall in, you're never coming out. There's Water on Mercury, and EVERY World Like it! If it proves consistent, then we may have reconciled planet formation theory with the water-poor Earth: Regions of low turbulence in the protoplanetary disk allow formation of water-poor terrestrial planets.". None of this name calling that the Journal of Cosmology did about NASA, Nature and Science magazine. And based on the wikipedia entry about you; you do know something. Since you are hiding behind OKThen, how could I know that you are "an amateur". This is very exciting – after t~1 million years, there is a growing ice-free region right around the Earth’s orbit! Back before the telescope was invented, Saturn was known as the Old Man of the Skies. How did you get a photo picture to the nine planets? But the opposite is true on Mercury; it's actually the most eccentric planet in the Solar System, a full 52% farther away at aphelion than at perihelion! Perhaps the publication came out too soon; more appropriate would have been on April 1.". And the guiding principle of Astrobiology has always been "Follow The Water.". The closest planet to the Sun has temperatures which can reach over 700 K. The local day on the surface of Mercury is 176 earth-days, so the surface is slowly rotating under a relentless assault from the Sun. I have no control over the Journal and am aware that their server crashed many times from people trying to download the paper. Robotic missions could be flown, but these would be difficult, and costly and are not likely to be undertaken by NASA. This was a prediction of the late Sir Fred Hoyle, that has been confirmed by a large number of Space observations. So AT FIRST, I accept Torbjörn's and Richard's answers as reasonable. I am qualified to have an OPINION based on others who are qualified to judge the merit of your work. There obviously aren’t any lakes and oceans of water on Mercury. COMPLETE NONSENSE, the gas giants aren't 40% water. However, there may be others who read these words who may chose to examine the data with an open mind. It would also predict the dryness of terrestrials, who have ~ 0.05 % water by mass. Mercury, the innermost planet of our Solar System, is less than half as distant from the Sun as the Earth. Instead we have siliceous minerals. "Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player, that struts and frets his hour upon the stage and then is heard no more; it is a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing." You only tell what you think is correct about your research; you do not address the recognized problems with your hypothesis. As the evidence from Mercury shows, water can be found almost everywhere. and the cubanite grains returned by Stardust from comet Wild 2. Raymond Pierrehumbert, Eric Gaidos 2012, arXiv:1105.0021 At a bare minimum this would require publication in a prestigious peer-refereed scientific journal — which this is not. Convincing laymen is easy. Other scientists have also shown that these meteorites contain chiral amino acids, fatty acids, nuucleobases, pristane, phytane, vanadyl porphyrins and other life-critical biomolecules that are both indigenous and extraterrestrial in origin. "The origin of water on Earth, or the reason that there is clearly more water on the Earth than on the other planets of the Solar System, has not been clarified. Mercury is a terrestrial planet. It’s often said that advanced in physics aren’t met with “eureka!” but rather with “that’s funny,” but the truth is even stranger sometimes.…, “I am looking at the future with concern, but with good hope.” –Albert Schweitzer Recently it has been suggested that the same would happen with carbon, a "soot line". It is published in this paper and in many others for the entire world to examine. There is nothing really unique about our beautiful pale blue dot. Richard B. Hoover, NO THANKS!! Although Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun, and can be extremely hot over most of its surface, ice may exist at the bottoms of some polar craters because the crater floors are permanently shadowed by the crater rims. Image credit: Physical Geography; http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/6h.html. NASA’s Mariner and MESSENGER missions, however, revealed that there is much more to the smallest and innermost planet of the Solar System than meets the eye. I can wait a long time for a credible answer. " Keep looking to the Universe. I have demonstrated separating crystalline ice from ground basalt simulating lunar regolith (see above presentation for data). However, NASA distanced itself from Hoover's claim and his lack of expert peer-reviews." Unfortunately, I then read the comments, and now, instead of wondering about our amazing universe, I'm wondering about how common it is to find rude and argumentative people on sites like this. I have been a professional scientist since I joined NASS in 1966 and have published over 250 scientific papers. Many of them contain embedded filaments, some of which exhibit both the size, size ranges and complex morphologies that are known in certain genera and species of Cyanobacteria that are well-known on Earth. So my first problem with your hypothesis of blue green algae living in space is a problem of contamination after the meteor lands on earth. And that's why there's not only water on Mercury, there's probably water on every Mercury- and Moon-like world out there! Torbjörn's link says, "However, in comparison to the gas giants, Earth is actually very water poor! It is not a hypothesis, It is not a theory. Every so often, the argument comes up that science is expendable. - Hydrogen Greenhouse Planets Beyond the Habitable Zone by In collaboration with Dr. Elena Pikuta, I have discovered, described and validly published two new genera and twelve new species of bacteria from extreme environments. And a lot of it. If observed by humans they would say "look at the long tail on that beautiful COMET" not "look at the long tail on that comet-like asteroid." Mercury is the smallest planet in our solar system. Though the team cannot say which volatiles were present, there is reason to hope that water might be one of them, Dr. Domingue said. There is also a more subtle problem. Continental drift is just one example. Image credit: NASA / JPL / Ted Stryk, 1974. Instead the roughly same water content found in Earth, Moon and Mars initial mantle by various samples (zircons, Apollo samples, martian meteorites) can be predicted by a disk mechanism, as opposed to the differential rates suggested by impactor delivery. Please make a tax-deductible donation if you value independent science communication, collaboration, participation, and open access. It is obvious that you understand this subject very well. Mercury has a very tenuous and highly variable atmosphere (surface-bound exosphere) containing hydrogen, helium, oxygen, sodium, calcium, potassium and water vapor, with a combined pressure level of about 10 −14 bar (1 nPa). The periodic presence of sunlight and hot liquid water and cold liquid brines provide suitable conditions for the growth of filamentous Cyanobacteria within pools within the rocky and icy crusts of comets or water-bearing asteroids.